LPIC-2

LPIC-2 é a segunda certificação no programa de certificação profissional multinível do LPI. O LPIC-2 irá validar a capacidade do candidato para administrar pequenas redes mistas de médio porte. O candidato deve ter uma LPIC-1 certificação ativa.

Exames LPIC-2

  • O LPIC-2 201:
  • O LPIC-2 201:

Pré-requisitos

O candidato deve ter uma LPIC-1 certificação ativa a receber a certificação LPIC-2, mas os exames LPIC-1 e LPIC-2 podem ser feitos em qualquer ordem.

Idiomas

Inglês, Alemão, Português (Brasil), japonês

Para se tornar LPIC-2 certificado, o candidato deve ser capaz de

  • Executar a administração avançada do sistema, incluindo tarefas comuns sobre o kernel Linux, a inicialização e manutenção do sistema
  • Executar o gerenciamento avançado de armazenamento em bloco e sistemas de arquivos, bem como redes avançadas e de autenticação e segurança do sistema, incluindo firewall e VPN
  • Instalar e configurar serviços de rede fundamentais, incluindo DHCP, DNS, SSH, servidores Web, servidores de arquivos utilizando FTP, NFS e Samba, a entrega de e-mail
  • Supervisionar assistentes e orientar a gestão na automação e compras.
Tópico 200: Planejamento de Capacidade

200.1 Medindo e Solucionando o Uso de Recursos

Descrição: Os Candidatos devem ser capazes de medir os recursos de hardware, rede e largura de banda da rede, identificar e solucionar problemas relacionados ao uso dos recursos.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Measure CPU usage
  • Measure memory usage
  • Measure disk I/O
  • Measure network I/O
  • Measure firewalling and routing throughput
  • Map client bandwidth usage
  • Match / correlate system symptoms with likely problems
  • Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking

Termos:

  • iostat
  • netstat
  • w
  • top
  • sar
  • processes blocked on I/O
  • blocks out
  • vmstat
  • pstree, ps
  • Isof
  • uptime
  • swap
  • blocks in

200.2 Prever Futuras necessidades de recursos

Descrição: Candidato deve ser capaz de monitorar o uso de recursos para prever futuras necessidades.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Use collectd to monitor IT infrastructure usage
  • Predict capacity break point of a configuration
  • Observe growth rate of capacity usage
  • Graph the trend of capacity usage
  • Awareness of monitoring solutions such as Nagios, MRTG and Cacti

Termos:

  • diagnose
  • predict growth
  • resource exhaustion

201.2 Compiling a kernel

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • /usr/src/linux/
  • Kernel Makefiles
  • Kernel 2.6.x/3.x make targets
  • Customize the current kernel configuration.
  • Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.
  • Install a new kernel and any modules.
  • Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.
  • Module configuration files
  • Awareness of dracut

Termos:

  • mkinitrd
  • mkinitramfs
  • make
  • bzip2
  • make targets (all, config, xconfig, menuconfig, gconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg)
  • gzip
  • module tool
  • /usr/src/linux/.config
  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/
  • depmod

201.3 Kernel runtime management and troubleshooting

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x or 3.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules
  • Manually load and unload kernel modules
  • Determine when modules can be unloaded
  • Determine what parameters a module accepts
  • Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.
  • /proc filesystem
  • Content of /, /boot/ , and /lib/modules/
  • Tools and utilities to analyze information about the available hardware
  • udev rules

Termos:

  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
  • module configuration files in /etc/
  • /proc/sys/kernel/
  • /sbin/depmod
  • /sbin/rmmod
  • /sbin/modinfo
  • /bin/dmesg
  • /sbin/lspci
  • /usr/bin/lsdev
  • /sbin/lsmod
  • /sbin/modprobe
  • /sbin/insmod
  • /bin/uname
  • /usr/bin/lsusb
  • /etc/sysctl.conf, /etc/sysctl.d/
  • /sbin/sysctl
  • udevmonitor
  • udevadm monitor
  • /etc/udev/
Topic 202: System Startup

202.1 Customizing SysV-init system startup

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various run levels. A thorough understanding of the init structure and boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with run levels.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)
  • SysV init environment

Termos:

  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/init.d/
  • /etc/rc.d/
  • chkconfig
  • update-rc.d
  • init and telinit

202.2 System Recovery

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy are the bootloaders of interest.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • GRUB version 2 and Legacy
  • Grub shell
  • Boot loader start and hand off to kernel
  • Kernel loading
  • Hardware initialization and setup
  • Daemon/service initialization and setup
  • Know the different boot loader install locations on a hard disk or removable device
  • Overwriting standard boot loader options and using boot loader shells
  • Awareness of UEFI

Termos:

  • mount
  • fsck
  • inittab, telinit and init with SysV init
  • the contents of /boot/ and /boot/grub/
  • GRUB
  • grub-install
  • initrd, initramfs
  • Master boot record

202.3 Alternate Bootloaders

Descrição:  Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • LILO
  • SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX
  • Understanding of PXE

Termos:

  • lilo, /etc/lilo.conf
  • syslinux
  • extlinux
  • isolinux.bin
  • isolinux.cfg
  • pxelinux.0
  • pxelinux.cfg/
Topic 203: Filesystem and Devices

203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • The concept of the fstab configuration
  • Tools and utilities for handling SWAP partitions and files
  • Use of UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems

Termos:

  • /etc/fstab
  • /etc/mtab
  • /proc/mounts
  • mount and umount
  • blkid
  • sync
  • swapon
  • swapoff

203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem​

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate xfs
  • Awareness of Btrfs

Termos:

  • fsck (fsck.*)
  • mkfs (mkfs.*)
  • dumpe2fs, xfsdump, xfsrestore
  • debugfs
  • tune2fs
  • mkswap
  • xfs_info, xfs_check and xfs_repair
  • smartd, smartctl

203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • autofs configuration files
  • UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities
  • awareness of CD-ROM filesystems (UDF, ISO9660, HFS)
  • awareness of CD-ROM filesystem extensions (Joliet, Rock Ridge, El Torito)
  • basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems

Termos:

  • /etc/auto.master
  • /etc/auto.[dir]
  • mkisofs
Topic 204: Advanced Storage Device Administration

204.1 Configuring RAID

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Software raid configuration files and utilities

Termos:

  • mdadm.conf
  • mdadm
  • /proc/mdstat
  • partition type 0xFD

204.2 Adjusting Storage Device Access

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyze system resources (e.g. interrupts)
  • Awareness of sdparm command and its uses
  • Tools and utilities for iSCSI

Termos:

  • hdparm, sdparm
  • tune2fs
  • sysctl
  • /dev/hd*, /dev/sd*
  • iscsiadm, scsi_id, iscsid and iscsid.conf
  • WWID, WWN, LUN numbers

204.3 Logical Volume Manager

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Tools in the LVM suite
  • Resizing, renaming, creating, and removing logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes
  • Creating and maintaining snapshots
  • Activating volume groups

Termos:

  • /sbin/pv*
  • /sbin/lv*
  • /sbin/vg*
  • mount
  • /dev/mapper/
Topic 205: Network Configuration

205.1 Basic networking configuration

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Configuring basic access to wireless networks with iw, iwconfig and iwlist

Termos:

  • /sbin/route
  • /sbin/ifconfig
  • /sbin/ip
  • /usr/sbin/arp
  • /sbin/iwconfig
  • /sbin/iwlist

205.2 Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device and resolving communication problems.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Utilities to manipulate routing tables
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to analyze the status of the network devices
  • Utilities to monitor and analyze the TCP/IP traffic

Termos:

  • /sbin/route
  • /sbin/ifconfig
  • /bin/netstat
  • /bin/ping
  • /usr/sbin/arp
  • /usr/sbin/tcpdump
  • /usr/sbin/lsof
  • /usr/bin/nc
  • /sbin/ip
  • nmap

205.3 Troubleshooting Network Issues

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Location and content of access restriction files
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to manage routing tables
  • Utilities to list network states.
  • Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
  • Methods of information about the recognized and used hardware devices
  • System initialization files and their contents (SysV init process)
  • Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration

Termos:

  • /sbin/ifconfig
  • /sbin/route
  • /bin/netstat
  • /etc/network/, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
  • /bin/ping
  • System log files such as /var/log/syslog & /var/log/messages
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/hostname, /etc/HOSTNAME
  • /bin/hostname
  • /usr/sbin/traceroute
  • /bin/dmesg
  • /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny
Topic 206: System Maintenance

206.1 Make and install programs from source

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities
  • Understand basics of invoking make to compile programs
  • Apply parameters to a configure script
  • Know where sources are stored by default

Termos:

  • /usr/src/
  • gunzip
  • gzip
  • bzip2
  • tar
  • configure
  • make
  • uname
  • install
  • patch

206.2 Backup operations

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups
  • Awareness of network backup solutions such as Amanda, Bacula and BackupPC
  • Knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of tapes, CDR, disk or other backup media
  • Perform partial and manual backups
  • Verify the integrity of backup files
  • Partially or fully restore backups

Termos:

  • /bin/sh
  • dd
  • tar
  • /dev/st* and /dev/nst*
  • mt
  • rsync

206.3 Notify users on system-related issues

Descrição:  Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.

Áreas de conhecimento:

  • Automate communication with users through logon messages
  • Inform active users of system maintenance

Termos:

  • /etc/issue
  • /etc/issue.net
  • /etc/motd
  • wall
  • /sbin/shutdown